Salmonella in birds

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Salmonella or paratyphoid is a disease caused by Salmonella bacteria, and it comes in various forms depending on the area of infection, and usually the birds that are infected with it after treatment may become a serious source of infection, especially for vagals.

The causative agent of the disease: Salmonella Pullorum remains in the intestine and can move in any humid environment. Usually, salmonella bacteria are secreted with sick bird droppings, or with colostrum for incubating birds or by egg shells.

Seriousness of the disease:

1-Among the most severe types of bacteria that resist weather changes and disinfectants used in wards.

2- It caused severe deterioration in the condition of birds and severe shortage of bird weights.

3- It affects all ages and is more dangerous in young ages.

4-It greatly affects the fertility of laying hens and causes a decrease in egg production.

5-Salmonella caused septicemia in infected birds.

6- Salmonella causes severe food poisoning in humans as a result of the presence of the microbe in poultry. Therefore, poultry must be purchased from a reliable and healthy source that follows sound procedures in breeding and is subject to the prices of the poultry stock in Egypt.

 

How to identify infection with Salmonella?

Because of the different location of the infection, the forms in which Salmonella disease may appear may differ, as follows:

 A-Intestinal infection: Mucous stools are sticky and smelly, and the affected pigeon body is weakened clearly.

 B - Articular injury: Salmonella bacteria settles in the joints, causing them to become inflamed, causing severe pain to the affected bird, and the joint swells, forcing the pigeon to raise one of its wings or legs to relieve pain.

C. Organic infection: Salmonella bacteria may multiply in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, or spleen, causing apparent lethargy in the body.

D- Neurological injury: After the penetration of salmonella into the brain and bone marrow, the nerve cells are subjected to terrible pressure, which leads to the imbalance of the affected bird and then the occurrence of paralysis and tremor .., and it is advised to exterminate the bird that reached such a dangerous stage.

 

The apparent symptoms of the disease:

1-      Symptoms appear clearly on young chicks in the first week after hatching if the infection is vertical from mothers.
2-      - If the infection was after hatching, the infection appears in the second week of incubation.
3-      Symptoms are in the form 
 
-Idle in birds and refrain from eating and drinking.
- The presence of chills, the birds gather under the heating source, difficulty in movement, and when the temperature increases, the birds do not disperse.
-Close the eyes and lethargy in the bird
-White or diarrhea diarrhea with contamination of the compound opening with viscous substances consisting of urea salts as a result of the kidneys being affected by microbes
-Difficulty breathing and sudden death.
 –In large birds, the diarrhea is watery green and yellowish. The disease is accompanied by a decrease in egg production and a decrease in fertility and hatching.
 
 
Methods of disease prevention:
1-Proper application of biosecurity measures to limit disease transmission from outside to wards.
2-Purchase of chicks from hatcheries with a reliable source so that the mothers are not infected or carriers of Salmonella.
3- Good disinfection in hatchery plants.
4-Getting rid of rodents, insects and migratory birds that transmit the disease.
5-Proper disposal of dead birds away from the breeding site.
 
Salmonella treatment
There is no specific treatment that completely eliminates the Salmonella microbe. However, some antibiotics can be used that reduce the percentage of the dead and limit economic loss, such as:
1-Colstein sulfate 
2-Neweason 
3- Amoxicillin


19 Feb, 2020
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