Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins


Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some fungi that are genetically capable of               producing toxins when they have the appropriate environmental and nutritional conditions to produce   their toxins. Mycotoxins are characterized as toxic chemical compounds produced by fungi with low molecular weights ranging from 100-697 Dalton. Therefore, they do not stimulate the immune system to form antibodies, they are well dissolved in organic solvents and they also resist digestion processes that occur in animals and humans. Most of the fungal toxins are odorless and tasteless. Mycotoxins are among the strongest toxins because they are heat-resistant and one fungus may produce more than one poison.

Divide mycotoxins by:

1-      Its toxicity: Very toxic, medium toxicity, and low toxicity.
2-      Symptoms: Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Causing distortions.
3-      Injury to human and animal organs: The heart that causes it (xanthosacine, carolic acid), the blood that causes it (allopenes), the nerves that cause it (aflatoxin B1, fumensense B), the digestive system that causes trichothiazines, gliotoxin), the reproductive system that causes it (Zyralinone), the respiratory system caused by epumenol), The kidneys that cause it (glycotoxin), the skin that causes it (glycerin’s).
 
Types of infection with mycotoxins:
1-      Acute injury: It occurs as a result of consuming a high concentration of toxins.
2-      Chronic injury: It occurs as a result of consuming low concentration for a long time.

Detect and estimate mycotoxins:

1-      Biological methods: depend on the changes that occur in the tissues of the tested animals.
2-      Chemical methods: It depends on chemical analysis using some devices.
3-      Immunological methods: depend on the interaction between the antibodies.
4-      Molecular methods: It is a fast method and requires small amounts of DNA to ensure the presence of poison.

Treating mycotoxins: -

When we set a course for the strategic treatment of mycotoxins, we must first define the types of mycotoxins from a therapeutic perspective in general and we will find that they fall into two types:

- Polar mycotoxins or nature's electrical "that is, they have an electrical charge" such as aflatoxin and oxatoxin, and these two types are the best forage treatment for them. These are antimicotoxic toxins such as active charcoal and active silicates, and they are the only ones that bear the pressure of pressing and granulation because they are made mainly at a temperature of up to 140 degrees Percentage.

 - Mycotoxins are neither polar nor electrophysiological, "that is, they do not carry an electrical charge" such as 2T, zeralinone, citrine, oosporin, and OND. These types do not treat amalgam except with the use of biological toxin antagonists based on the storage process resulting from mannan oligosaccharide or MOS in addition to the enzymatic activity of enzymes and the use of yeasts and bacteria. Like the extract resulting from the fermentation of a specific type of lactobacillus bacteria, this extract contains some enzymes that break down the chemical composition of toxins and thus the toxins are converted to other compounds that have no toxicity and these yeasts and bacteria also secrete some Enzymes into the gut, where feed contaminated with mycotoxins and these enzymes are the same previously mentioned work.

 - As for the tactical treatment for it, it is the use of liquid antagonists and two conditions are required - that this antagonist contain silymarin "which renews the activity of liver cells and prevents their cirrhosis" - and that it is preceded by the forage treatment process with an appropriate forage antitoxin.

-There is a strategy for using antifungals and anti-toxins: - antifungals are those that work on fungi and prevent their growth and have nothing to do with the resulting toxins. Organic acids and their salts are used such as boric acid - acetic acid - citric acid and the salts are distinguished as long-acting in contrast to the acids themselves and use some of the compounds as an anti-fungicide such as sodium de sulfite, methyl propane, and potassium sorbate and calcium propionate.

- Increasing the rate of sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine), based on the requirements needed in normal circumstances, works to protect chicks from a low rate of growth and to counteract the poisoning state by glutathione. The amino acid phenylalanine must be increased from the normal limits, although this increase does not improve body weight. Or the rate of food conversion, but it works to reduce the rate of mortality, in the case of the presence of uratoxin.

-With regard to anti-oxidants: anti-oxidants can be added to help the liver and cells carry out anti-toxicity operations.

-The use of vitamin D3 and vitamin and selenium in diets helps reduce the harmful effect of mycotoxins.

-Toxicity can be prevented by natural methods by soaking the raw materials and toxins infected with toxins in organic solvents such as 95% ethanol and isopropanol, but it is a very unscientific and inexpensive method.

- From the above it is clear many things for the treatment of mycotoxins because they are a real danger that affects the health of the animal and hence the human being. Therefore, constant scientific attention and research must be done to eliminate mycotoxins.

Prevention of mycotoxins:

1-      Store field crops in silos that meet the appropriate conditions of heat, humidity, and ventilation.
2-      Periodic sterilization of grain stores and silos.
3-      Treating grains and fodder with some antifungal toxins, such as organic acids and beneficial yeasts of certain strains and some natural compounds such as betonies and silica.
4-      Using chemical methods that cause breakdown of some toxins such as ammonia and weight.
5-      The necessity of an awareness campaign by the Ministry of Health, civil society organizations and various media outlets that show the risks of mycotoxins.
Treating mycotoxins:
There are some therapeutic methods for the mycotoxins of domestic animals, which are two basic long-term strategic treatments that are forage and a phased tactical treatment in drinking water.
When we set a course for the strategic treatment of mycotoxins, we must first define the types of mycotoxins from a therapeutic perspective in general and we will find that they fall into two types:
- Polar mycotoxins or nature's electrical "that is, they have an electrical charge" such as aflatoxin and oxatoxin, and these two types are the best forage treatment for them. These are antimicotoxic toxins such as active charcoal and active silicates, and they are the only ones that bear the temperature of pressing and granulation because they are made mainly at a temperature of up to 140 degrees Percentage.
 
- Mycotoxins are neither polar nor electrophysiological, "that is, they do not carry an electrical charge" such as 2T, zeralinone, citrine, oosporin, and OND. These types do not treat amalgam except with the use of biological toxin antagonists based on the storage process resulting from mannan oligosaccharide or MOS in addition to the enzymatic activity of enzymes and the use of yeasts and bacteria. Like the extract resulting from the fermentation of a specific type of lactobacillus bacteria, this extract contains some enzymes that break down the chemical composition of toxins and thus the toxins are converted to other compounds that have no toxicity and these yeasts and bacteria also secrete some Enzymes into the gut, where feed contaminated with mycotoxins and these enzymes are the same mentioned previous work.
 - As for the tactical treatment for it, it is the use of liquid antagonists and two conditions are required - that this antagonist contain silymarin "which renews the activity of liver cells and prevents their cirrhosis" - and that it is preceded by the forage treatment process with an appropriate forage antitoxin.
- There is a strategy for using antifungals and anti-toxins: - antifungals are those that work on fungi and prevent their growth and have nothing to do with the resulting toxins. Organic acids and their salts are used such as boric acid - acetic acid - citric acid and the salts are distinguished as long-acting in contrast to the acids themselves and use some of the compounds as an anti-fungicide such as sodium de sulfite, methyl propane, potassium sorbate and calcium propionate.
-Increasing the rate of sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine), based on the requirements required in normal conditions, works to protect chicks from a low rate of growth and to counteract the poisoning state by glutathione. Or the rate of food conversion, but it works to reduce the rate of mortality, in the case of the presence of uratoxin.
-With regard to anti-oxidants: anti-oxidants can be added to help the liver and cells carry out anti-toxicity operations.
 -The use of vitamin D3 and vitamin and selenium in diets helps reduce the harmful effect of mycotoxins.
Toxicity can be prevented by natural means by soaking the raw materials and toxins infected with toxins in organic solvents such as 95% ethanol and isopropanol, but it is a very unscientific and inexpensive method.

- From the above it is clear many things for the treatment of mycotoxins because they are a real danger that affects the health of animals and hence the human being. Therefore, constant scientific attention and research must be done to eliminate mycotoxins.


21 Jan, 2020
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